__Contents__

- Dividend Discount Model (DDM)
- Types Of Dividend Discount Models
- Limitations of Gordon Growth Model:
- Shortcomings of the DDM
- Problems of prognostication value exploitation DDM

**Dividend Discount Model (DDM)**

After you finance for a long, it may be reasonably all over that the sole income that you just can receive from a publically listed company is the dividends until you sell the stock.

Therefore, before finance, it should be excusable to calculate the dividends income that you’ll receive whereas holding the stock. The dividend discount model (DDM) uses a similar approach to search out the price of the stock.

In monetary words, the dividend discount model could be a valuation technique accustomed notice the intrinsic worth of a corporation by discounting the anticipated dividends that the corporate is giving (to its shareholders in the future) to its gift worth.

Once, this worth is calculated, it may be compared with the present value of the stock to search out whether or not the stock is overvalued or the right way valued.

**Types of Dividend Discount Models**

Now that you just have understood the fundamentals of the Dividend Discount Model, allow us to move forward and learn 3 styles of Dividend Discount Models.

- Zero Growth Dividend Discount Model
- Constant Growth Dividend Discount Model
- Variable Growth Dividend Discount Model

Zero Growth Dividend Discount Model

The Zero growth dividend discount model assumes that each one of the dividends that are paid by the corporate stays the same forever (until infinity).

Therefore, here the dividend rate (g) is zero.

Constant Growth Dividend Discount Model

This dividend discount model assumes that dividends grow at a hard and fast proportion annually. They are not variable and are constant throughout the lifetime of the corporate. the foremost common model employed in the constant growth dividend discount model is the Gordon growth model (GGM)

Gordon Growth Model (GGM):

The Gordon growth model for DCF is kind of easy and easy. Here are the 3 worth’s needed to calculate the share value of a company:

- Div= Dividend at the ordinal year.
- r = company’s value of capital/ needed rate of coming back
- g=constant rate of dividends until perpetuity

**Limitations of Gordon Growth Model:**

Here are some real limitations to the Gordon growth model whereas the performing arts constant growth dividend discount model

- The constant rate for perpetuity isn’t valid for many of the businesses. Moreover, newer firms have an unsteady dividend rate within the initial years.
- The calculation is sensitive to the inputs. Even a little modification within the input assumption will greatly alter the arithmetic mean of the share.
- High growth drawback. If the dividend rate becomes on top of the specified rate of coming back i.e. g>r, then the worth of the share worth can become negative, that isn’t possible.

**Shortcomings of the DDM**

While the GGM technique of DDM is widely used, it’s 2 well-known shortcomings. The model assumes a continuing dividend rate in perpetuity. This assumption is usually safe for terribly mature firms that have a long-time history of standard dividend payments. However, DDM might not be the most effective model to worth newer firms that have unsteady dividend growth rates or no dividend in the slightest degree. One will still use the DDM on such firms, however with a lot of and a lot of assumptions, the exactness decreases.

The second issue with the DDM is that the output is extremely sensitive to the inputs. For instance, within the Company X example higher than, if the dividend rate is down by 100% to 4.5%, the ensuing stock worth is $75.24, that is quite a 2 hundredth decrease from the sooner calculated worth of $94.50.

The model additionally fails once firms could have a lower rate of come back (r) compared to the dividend rate (g). This might happen once a corporation continues to pay dividends even though its acquisition is a loss or comparatively lower earnings.

The multi-level/Variable Growth Dividend Discount Model

The multi-level rate for the dividends model could divide the expansion rate into 2 or 3 phases (according to the assumption).

In the two-stage rate DDM Model, the dividends grow at a high rate ab-initio followed by a lower constant rate for later years.

Further, within the three-stage growth DDM Model, the primary stage is a quick initial part, then a slower transition part so ultimately ends with a lower rate for the infinite amount. For example- a corporation XYZ’s dividend could grow at a five-hitter rate for the primary seven years, a third rate for the ensuing four years, and eventually a pair of rates in perpetuity.

Limitation:

The biggest downside with the multi-level rate of the dividend discount model is that it’s extremely troublesome to assume the expansion rate in little specific periods. There are plenty of uncertainties concerned when creating these assumptions once the expansion is distributed at multiple levels.

**Problems of prognostication value exploitation DDM**

Here are some of the common limitations of prognostication share worth exploitation of the dividend discount model:

- Plenty of assumptions concerning the dividend growth and the company’s future.
- This valuation model smart as so much the assumptions are good.
- Most of the inputs of the DDM model keep on dynamic and prone to error.

Not possible for a few classes of stocks like Growth stocks. These stocks pay very little or no dividends however rather use the corporate profit in their growth. DDM may ne’er notice these stocks appropriate for investment despite however smart the stock is.