1. Summary
  2. A History of Bank Runs 
  3. Bank Run vs. Silent Bank Run


Bank runs go back as beforehand as the arrival of banking when goldsmiths in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries would issue paper bills repairable for physical gold over the stock that they held. This was an early illustration of fractional reserve banking, whereby bankers could issue further paper notes repairable for gold than they held in stock.  The conception was feasible since the goldsmiths (and further ultramodern bankers) knew that on any given day, only a small chance of gold on hand would be demanded redemption. still, if depositors suddenly demanded their gold deposits all at formerly, it could spell disaster, and this did be several times in response to poor crops or political fermentation.

A History of Bank Runs 

In ultramodern history, bank runs are frequently associated with the Great Depression. In the wake of the 1929 stock request crash, American depositors began to horrify and seek retreat from holding physical cash. The first bank failure due to mass recessions passed in 1930 in Tennessee. This putatively minor and isolated incident, still, prodded a string of posterior bank runs across the South and also the entire country as people heard what happen and sought to withdraw their deposits before they lost their savings, a herding geste that only sped up more bank runs via a negative feedback circle.

Rumors began to spread that banks were refusing to give guests back their cash, causing indeed lesser fear and anxiety amongst the public. In December 1930, a New Yorker who was advised by the Bank of United States against dealing with a particular stock left the branch and instantly began telling people the bank was unintentional or unfit to vend his shares. Interpreting this as a sign of bankruptcy, bank guests lined up by the thousands and, within hours, withdrew over$ 2 million from the bank. The race of bank runs that passed in the early 1930s represented a domino effect of feathers, as news of one bank failure scarified guests of near banks, egging them to withdraw their money, where a single bank failure in Nashville led to a host of bank runs across the Southeast.  In response to the bank runs of the 1930s, the U.S. government set up several nonsupervisory mechanisms to help this from passing again, including establishing the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which moment insures depositors up to $1,000 per banking institution.

The 2008- 09 fiscal extremity was again met with some notable bank runs. On September 25, 2008, Washington Mutual (WaMu), the sixth-largest American fiscal institution at the time, was shut down by the U.S. Office of Thrift Supervision. Over the preceding days, depositors had withdrawn further than $16.7 billion in deposits, causing the bank to run out of short-term cash reserves.  The veritably coming day, Wachovia Bank was also shuttered for analogous reasons, when depositors withdrew over$ 15 billion over two weeks after Wachovia reported negative earnings results before that quarter. important of the recessions at Wachovia were concentrated among marketable accounts with balances above the $ 1,000 limit ensured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), drawing those balances down to just below the FDIC limit.  Note, still, that the failure of large investment banks like Lehman Sisters, AIG, and Bear Stearns wasn’t the result of a run on the bank by depositors. Rather, these redounded from a credit and liquidity extremity involving derivations and asset-backed securities.  

Bank Run vs. Silent Bank Run

Bank runs are generally depicted as a long line of bank guests anxiously staying their turn to step up to the teller’s window and demand their accounts be closed. moment, when a bank run occurs, it isn’t met with long lines. A so-called silent bank run is when depositors withdraw finances electronically in large volumes without physically entering the bank. Silent bank runs are analogous to normal bank runs, except finances are withdrawn via ACH transfers, line transfers, and other styles that don’t bear physical recessions of cash.  In some ways, these new technologies make the prospect of a bank run indeed more threatening from the perspective of a bank. numerous traditional walls that would have helped decelerate the pace of a bank run — similar to guests demanding to stay by long ranges to withdraw finances are no longer applicable. also, guest’s moment doesn’t need to stay to place orders within a bank’s working hours. They can issue an order online and that order will be reused once the bank opens. On the other hand, these ultramodern conveniences might also profit banks by making the circumstance of a bank run less visible to outside spectators. A depositor might be more likely to withdraw their finances if they see other depositors lining up outside a bank wishing to do so. With electronic pull-out requests, the symptoms of a bank run may be less fluently seen