1. Auction Exchanges
  2. New York stock market (NYSE)
  3. Electronic Exchanges
  4. Nasdaq
  5. Electronic Communication Networks (ECNs)
  6. Over-the-Counter (OTC)

Auction Exchanges

Auction exchanges or the auction market is an area wherever patrons and sellers place competitive bids and offer at the same time. In auction exchange, the present stock value is the highest value a purchaser is willing to pay on security, whereas rock bottom value is what the vendor can settle for. Trades are then matched, and once paired along, the order is dead.

The auction market is additionally noted because of the open outcry system. Brokers and traders communicate physically and verbally on the floor or pit to shop for and sell securities. Though this method is slowly being phased out by electronic systems, some exchanges still use the auction system, as well as the NY stock market (NYSE). The stock exchange Closing Auction is the last event of the commercialism day once the closing value for every stock is set by conveyance all patrons and sellers along to determine a price for all those concerned.

New York stock market (NYSE)

The only stock market is the world’s largest equities exchange. The parent company of the NY stock market is the intercontinental Exchange (ICE) as a result of the merger with the Europe exchange Euronext in 2007.

Although a number of its functions are transferred to electronic commercialism platforms, it remains one in every of the world’s leading auction markets, which means specialists (called “Designated Market Makers”) are physically gifted on its commercialism floors.6 every specialist makes a specialty of a specific stock, shopping for and commercializing the stock within the auction.

Investors who trade on the stock exchange enjoy a group of minimum protections. Among many of the wants that the stock exchange has enacted, the subsequent 2 particularly significant:

  • Equity incentive plans should receive stockholder approval.
  • A majority of the board of directors’ members should be freelance, the compensation committee should be entirely composed of freelance administrators, and also the audit committee should embody a minimum of one who possesses “accounting or connected money management experience.”

Electronic Exchanges

Many exchanges currently permit commercialism electronically. There are not any traders and no physical commercial activity. Instead, commercialism takes place on an electronic platform and does not need a centralized location wherever patrons and sellers will meet.

These exchanges are thought-about additional economical and far quicker than ancient exchanges and perform billions of greenbacks in trades day after day. The data system is one of every of the world’s leading electronic exchanges.


The data system is typically known as screen-based as a result patron and sellers’ are solely connected by computers over a telecommunications network. Market manufacturers, additionally referred to as dealers carry their inventory of stock. They stand able to obtain and sell stocks on the data system and are needed to post their bid and raise costs.

Electronic Communication Networks (ECNs)

Electronic communication networks (ECNs) are part of the exchange category known as various commercialism systems (ATSs). ECNs connect patrons and sellers directly as a result they permit a right away affiliation between the two; ECNs bypass market manufacturers. Consider them as an alternate suggests that to trade stocks listed on the data system and, more and more, alternative exchanges like the stock exchange or foreign exchanges.

Over-the-Counter (OTC)

The term over-the-counter (OTC) refers to markets apart from the organized exchanges delineated higher than. Over-the-counter markets typically list little corporations, several of that have fallen off to the securities market as a result of their being delisted the foremost over-the-counter markets include:

Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board (OTCBB)

The Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board (OTCBB) was an electronic community of market manufacturers. Corporations that fall off the data system are usually all over here. Once on the OTCBB, there have been no quantitative minimums or no minimum annual sales or assets needed to list. The over-the-counter Bulletin Board was enclosed Nov 2021.

Pink Sheets

The second securities market is noted because the Pink Sheets, a listing service that does not need corporations to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Liquidity is commonly the lowest, and these corporations don’t seem to be needed to submit quarterly 10Qs

OTC Risks

Some individual investors are cautious of over-the-counter stocks owing to the additional risks concerned. On the opposite hand, some robust corporations trade the over-the-counter. Many larger corporations have deliberately switched to over-the-counter markets to avoid the executive burden and dear fees that accompany restrictive oversight laws like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.