1. Summary
  2. Informalization of Credit Post-Waiver
  3. Implications for the Banks
  4. Implications for Government Finances


One of the principal arguments against farm loan waivers is that they produce a sort of ethical hazard for lenders. Take the instance of the primary major loan release declared by the UPA government in 2008. At that time of your time, the agricultural NPAs were a shade below two of the whole Agri loan book. Between 2009 and 2017, the Agri NPAs have gone up sharply from but two to 6% of the loan book. This for sure indicates that Agri NPAs have truly become a norm when the waivers have started and despite consecutive waivers, the NPAs have solely up. As a banker has justly commented within the past, “Farm loan waivers are virtually like peer pressure to default.” this can be specifically what appears to possess happened within the last eight years.

Informalization of Credit Post-Waiver

In principle, a debt release, by clearing the creditor’s books off non-performing assets (NPAs) of loans that have a high likelihood of default and possibly defaulted, the person would be able to release resources to lend out a recent spherical of loans. One key motivation of loan waivers is to confirm that farmers will still place confidence informal sources of credit, during this case, banks. Yet, it appears that debt waivers result in perverse consequences, wherever there’s bigger formal sector credit parceling. It should be noted here that by formal credit, the reference is to the banking sector instead of the microfinance establishments (MFIs) and non-banking monetary corporations (NBFCs) that have an increasing presence within the agricultural credit landscape. One reason place forth is that as a result of the release being staggered, lenders don’t have the liquidity straightaway post-waiver to be able to issue recent loans. The opposite reason is that the formal sector resulting to release typically attracts new borrowers, particularly from the tiny and marginal class in anticipation of the latest loans. To the extent that these new borrowers don’t strategically neglect loan repayments, this could be a positive outcome. However, banks would possibly scale down disposition in concern of those perverse consequences. One would expect that these effects vary across the kinds of disposition establishments, that is, between personal and public sector banks and cooperative banks.

Implications for the Banks

In most loan waivers to this point, the credit agency tends to be either the regular business banks or cooperative banks. To the extent that within the absence of a release, they’d have had to soak up defaults. Such waivers might enhance the profitableness or limit the losses of the loaner. A NIBM Report (2011) on ADWDRS noted that profits of cooperatives and business banks increased in 2008–2009 and of RRBs in 2009–2010. The study identifies agricultural NPA recovery because of the most significant reason for this. At the identical time, this can be a one-time increase in profitableness and it’s unclear whether or not these translate to a profit stream for these establishments, on the far side the year of loan release. If a key objective of the loan release is to clear the books of the lenders off their NPAs, it seems that the waivers did their job.

Nevertheless, one would wish to trace the behavior of the NPAs over time. If debt waivers vitiate the reimbursement culture, lenders would register a disproportionate increase in NPAs within the agricultural sector. because it seems, whereas the NPAs are on the increase, it’s not clear that this can be driven by the 2008–2009 debt release, neither is it the case that agricultural NPAs have up relative to those in alternative sectors. Compared to total advances, there’s no dramatic amendment within the share of priority sector disposition or agricultural advances, within the past decade. The NPAs within the non-priority sectors account for an irresistibly increasing share of all NPAs. Wherever we tend to found on NPAs are rising, and at the identical time, NPAs within the priority sector, relative to the non-priority sector for public sector banks and therefore the proportion of priority sector advances for all regular business banks

Implications for Government Finances

A key concern for the larger economics context has been the burden that loan waivers would place on government finances. To an outsized extent, the implications of the loan release rely on how states finance these and the way they structure the absorption of the prices into the budget. On the one hand, borrowing to hide the value of farm loan waivers or reducing alternative expenditure might force out doubtless crucial farm investments that can profit the farming community in the longer run. On the opposite hand, once the govt. depends thereon, it might conjointly impact the inflation rates via increasing the business deficit of the states. Further, considering that the loan waivers typically are adjoined many years, the impact of one farm loan release might have ramifications on the far side of this financial year.