Overview of Optimal Capital Structure with its significance along design and limitation


  1. Introduction
  2. Optimal Capital Structure
  3. Purpose of Optimal Capital Structure
  4. Importance of Optimal capital structure
  5. Determining the Optimal Capital Structure
  6. Designing an Optimal Capital Structure
  7. Limitations of Optimal Capital Structure


The optimal capital structure of an organization refers to the proportion during which it structures its equity and debt. It’s designed to take care of the right balance between maximizing the wealth and price of the corporate and minimizing it’s the price of capital. The target of an organization is to work out rock bottom weighted price of capital (WACC) whereas electing its capital structure. The WACC is that the weighted average of its price of equity and debt. An organization doesn’t need to require any debt.

Optimal Capital Structure

In theory, debt funding offers a rock bottom price of capital thanks to its tax deductibility. However, an excessive amount of debt will increase the monetary risk to shareholders and also the come on equity that they need. Thus, firms have to be compelled to realize the optimal purpose at that the marginal advantage of debt equals the incremental cost.

Purpose of optimal Capital Structure

The optimal capital structure is calculable by shrewd the combination of debt and equity that minimizes the weighted price of capital (WACC) of an organization whereas increasing its value. The lower the value of capital, the bigger the current price of the firm’s future money flows, discounted by the WACC. Thus, the chief goal of any finance department ought to be to seek out the optimal capital structure that may lead to rock bottom WACC and also the most price of the corporate (shareholder wealth). According to economists Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller, within the absence of taxes, bankruptcy prices, agency prices, and uneven data, in an economical market, the worth of a firm is unaffected by its capital structure.

Importance of optimal capital structure

  • An optimal capital structure is that the best mixture of debt and equity funding that maximizes a company’s value whereas minimizing its price of capital.
  • Minimizing the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is a method to optimize for rock bottom cost mixture of funding.
  • According to some economists, within the absence of taxes, bankruptcy prices, agency prices, and uneven data, in an economical market, the worth of a firm is unaffected by its capital structure.

Determining the optimal Capital Structure

As it is troublesome to pinpoint the optimal capital structure, managers sometimes commit to operating inside a variety of values. They even have to require under consideration the signals their funding choices send to the market. A company with smart prospects can try and raise capital victimization debt instead of equity, to avoid dilution and causing any negative signals to the market. Announcements created by a few companies taking debt are generally seen as positive news, which is understood as a debt sign. If an organization raises an excessive amount of capital throughout a given period, the prices of debt, preference shares, and customary equity can begin to rise, and as this happens, the incremental cost of capital will rise. To gauge however risky an organization is, potential equity investors, look into the debt/equity quantitative relation. They conjointly compare the quantity of leverage different businesses within the same business are victimization on the idea that these firms are operational with an optimal capital structure to envision if the corporate is using an uncommon amount of debt inside its capital structure. And analysts might also utilize different debt ratios to place the corporate into a credit profile employing a rating.

Designing an optimal Capital Structure

  • Maximise the company’s wealth: The wealth of the corporate is calculated in terms of the current price of future money flows. This can be discounted by the WACC.
  • Minimise the value of capital: The lower the value of the capital, the lower is that the risk of financial condition. Firms in industries that have unsure future money flows ought to keep their price of funding lowest. The lower the value of capital, the upper are the gift price of future money flows.
  • Simplicity in structure: It ought to be easy to structure and perceive. A sophisticated capital structure can solely produce confusion.
  • Maintain management:  An optimal capital structure maintains the owners’ rights and management. It conjointly versatile and provides scope for future borrowing whenever necessary, while not losing management.

Limitations of optimal Capital Structure

Unfortunately, there is no quantitative relation of debt to equity to realize the real-world optimal capital structure. What defines a healthy mix of debt and equity varies in step with the industries concerned, line of business, and a firm’s stage of development, and might conjointly vary over time thanks to external changes in interest rates and restrictive surroundings. However, as a result of investors are happier to swing their cash into firms with sturdy balance sheets, it is smart that the optimal balance usually ought to mirror lower levels of debt and better levels of equity.

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Banking Professional with 16 Years of Experience. The idea to start this Blogging Site is to Create Awareness about the Banking and Financial Services.

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