1. Summary
  2. Variants of Dividend Discount Models
  3. Drawbacks to the Dividend Discount Model


This is one of all the essential applications of economic theory that’s educated in any introductory finance category. the speculation is simple to know. A stock is a price its worth if that worth is exceeded by a cyber web gift worth of its calculable current and future dividends.

But the model needs many assumptions concerning companies’ dividend payments and growth patterns and even the direction of future interest rates. The complexities arise within the exploration for wise numbers to fold into the equation.

Variants of Dividend Discount Models

There are 3 variants of dividend discount models:

Gordon-Growth Model

This model assumes that a company exists forever and its dividend growth can continue over a sustained amount of your time in the future. it’s among the foremost common dividend discount calculation strategies and uses constant formula because of the customary dividend discount model.

One-Period Dividend Discount Model

This model estimates dividend discounts for brief holding periods, generally for one year. The one-period dividend discount model is employed by investors to estimate a good worth once they shall sell the purchased stock at target damage.

 The Multi-Period Dividend Discount Model

This model calculates dividend payouts for a stock over multiple holding periods for investors who are committed to purchasing and selling the stock at completely different times throughout its growth mechanical phenomenon and business cycles. The model is right for holding periods that are longer than a year. it’s calculated whenever a capitalist purchases the stock.

Drawbacks to the Dividend Discount Model

Like all models that plan to predict future valuations for stocks, the dividend discount model conjointly has major drawbacks. Specifically, there are 2 major drawbacks to the present model.

The first and most significant one is that it doesn’t take into consideration changes in company circumstances or operational environments and assumes that corporations pay dividends in perpetuity. this is an often-incorrect assumption as a result of organizations adding dynamic business environments that are subject to multiple forces, like regulation and competition. Their dividend payouts are amendments to conditions within the economy that affect their business.

The dividend discount model is additionally particularly unsure for brand new corporations and startups that don’t have a spare log of payouts from the past. It works higher with established corporations, like utilities or established behemoths like GE and IBM, that are around for many years and have a history of constructing regular dividend payments. Even here, it’s vital to recollect that the key assumption of dividends in perpetuity is subject to the firm’s earnings. If dividend growth outpaces earnings, then the corporate can have a negative rate of coming back.

 The second downside of dividend discount models is that the formula is sensitive to inputs. If the expected rate of dividend growth changes, then the top results are often utterly completely different.

Compared to its additional widely used counterpart, the discounted income model, the dividend discount model is employed so much less usually in observation.

To a point, all advanced valuations are blemished – with the DDM being no exception.

In specific, a number of the drawbacks to the DDM technique are:

  • Sensitivity to Assumptions (e.g. Dividend Payout quantity, Dividend Payout rate, price of Equity)
  • Reduced Accuracy for High-Growth corporations (i.e. Negative divisor if Unprofitable, rate > price of Equity)
  • Declining Volume of company Dividends – choosing Share Repurchases Instead
  • Neglects Share Buybacks (i.e. Repurchases are Major issues for All Stakeholders and outdoors Spectators within the Market)

The DDM is additionally appropriate for big, mature corporations with a uniform log of paying out dividends. Even then, it is often terribly difficult to forecast the expansion rate of dividends paid.

In an excellent world wherever all company selections were created by the book, dividend payout amounts and growth rates would be an immediate reflection of the truth of monetary health and the expected performance of an organization.

But the truth of the case is that even poorly run corporations may still issue massive dividends, inflicting potential distortions in valuations.

The decision to issue massive dividends can be imputable to:

  • Upper-level Mismanagement: Management can be missing opportunities for re-investing into their core operations and are instead specializing in making worth for shareholders by provision dividends.
  • Share Price decrease Concern: Once enforced, corporations seldom cut or finish an antecedent declared dividend issue program, because it is a negative signal to the market, that most investors interpret within the worst potential approach.