1. Community Banks and the Rural Economy
  2. Farm Credit System
  3. Wholesale system banks

Community Banks and the Rural Economy

Thousands of community banks serve pastoral areas. The FDIC reported that as of September 30, 2021, there are 1153 agrarian banks, defined as those community banks with over twenty- five percent of their loans concentrated on husbandry. Numerous fresh community banks hold significant agrarian loan volumes. At the time- end of 2020, although all community banks held only 25 percent of total banking assiduity means, their share of ranch loans at marketable banks was roughly 88.4 percent, according to the FDIC.  Bank agrarian loans were distributed among further than,280 banks (about 85.43 percent of all marketable banks), while only about 67 FCS lending institutions hold agrarian loans. According to the USDA, total ranch debt increased from $ 356.7 billion in 2015 to $ 441.3 billion in 2020 with projected debt for 2022 of $ 467.4 billion.  The share of the Farm Credit System’s (FCS) portion of overall ranch debt increased from 40.6 percent in 2015 to 44.3 percent in 2020, rising from $ 145 billion to $ 195.5 billion. By comparison, the share of overall ranch debt held by marketable banks dropped from 42.7 percent in 2015 to 36.2 percent in 2020 as their ranch loans rose from $ 152.4 billion to159.9 billion. The FCS now holds 22 percent further ranch loans than marketable banks.  The growth in FCS loan volume is nearly entirely due to the rapid-fire growth in the System’s duty-free ranch real estate lending, which increased by 45 percent between 2015 to 2020 rising from $ 96.7 billion in 2015 to $ 140.5 billion in 2020 a growth rate further than twice that of marketable banks. This data explosively supports the need for Congress to pass the ECORA legislation (H.R. 1977/S. 2202).

Community banks are four times more likely to operate services in pastoral counties. Large banks are exiting pastoral America; their branch presence has declined by 18 percent in the last 10 times. Community banks remain the only banking presence in nearly, 1, 200 counties (well over a third of all U.S. counties) and hold the maturity of banking deposits in pastoral counties. 

Farm Credit System

FCS lenders enjoy illegal advantages over pastoral community banks and work their duty and backing advantages as government-patronized enterprises (GSEs) to siphon the stylish loans down from community banks. The FCS is the only GSE that competes directly against private sector lenders at the retail position. FCS was chartered by Congress to serve bona- fide growers and drovers and a narrow group of ranch-related businesses that give on-ranch services. still, in recent times FCS has sought multitudinous-farm lending powers in trouble to contend directly with marketable banks for non-farm guests.

FCS’s complicit controller, the Farm Credit Administration (FCA), has also sought to expand FCS conditioning through nonsupervisory enterprise similar to “investment bonds” and the “Rural Community Investments” regulation perfected in 2018. These enterprises give authority for non-farm lending under the guise of “investments,” indeed though similar lending goes beyond the constraints of the Farm Credit Act. also, the Farm Credit Council has proposed replacing the FCA’s previous blessing demand for these “investments” with mask authority for FCS lenders to authorize any investment without FCA’s previous review. ICBA opposes the Farm Credit Council’s legislative offer.  

Wholesale system banks

Farm Credit Bank (FCB)

Three ranch Credit Banks (FCBs) give loan finances to 50 Agricultural Credit Associations (ACAs) and one Federal Land Credit Association (FLCA). In turn, ACAs make short-, intermediate-, and long-term loans, while FLCAs make long-term loans, to growers, drovers, directors, and harvesters of submarine products, money resides for the casing, and certain ranch-related businesses. 

There are three FCBs 

• AgFirst

• AgriBank

• Farm Credit Bank of Texas 

There’s also one Agricultural Credit Bank, with the authority of an FCB (and a Bank for Cooperatives) 


FCBs were created on July 6, 1988, in 11 of the 12 also- being FCS sections when the FLB and FICB in each quarter intermingled. The combinations were needed by the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987.  Bank for Cooperatives (BC).  A Bank for Cooperatives (BC) provides lending and other financial services to the planter-possessed cooperatives, money serviceability (electric and telephone), and money seamster and water systems. A BC is also authorized to finance U.S. agrarian exports and give transnational banking services for planter-possessed cooperatives.  CoBank is an Agricultural Credit Bank (ACB) and has the authority of a Farm Credit Bank and a BC. The last standalone BC, the St. Paul Bank for Cooperatives, intermingled into CoBank on July 1, 1999.