__Contents__

- Summary
- Dividend Discount Model (DDM) concept
- Two-Stage and Multi-Stage DDM
- Multi-Stage Dividend Discount Model vs Gordon Growth
- Dividend Discount Model (DDM) vs Discounted income Model (DCF)

**Summary**

The Dividend Discount Model (DDM) states that the intrinsic worth of a corporation could be a performance of the total of all the expected dividends, with every payment discounted to this date.

Considered to be an intrinsic valuation methodology, the distinctive assumption specific to the DDM approach is that the treatment of dividends is because of the money flows of a corporation.

**Dividend Discount Model (DDM) con****cept**

Under the dividend discount model (DDM), the worth per share of a corporation is adequate for the total present value of all expected dividends to be issued to shareholders. Although a subjective determination, valid claims may be created that the free income calculation is at risk of manipulation through deceptive changes.

Under the strictest criterion, the sole real “cash flows” received by shareholders square measure dividend payments – thus, exploitation of dividend payments and also the growth of same payments square measure the first factors within the DDM approach.

**Two-Stage and Multi-Stage DDM**

There square measure many variations of the dividend discount model (DDM) with the maturity and historical payout of dividends determinant that applicable variation ought to be used.

As a general rule, the lot of mature the corporate and foreseeable dividend growth rate (i.e. an unchanged policy with a stable track record), the fewer stages the model is going to be comprised of.

But if dividend issuances are unsteady, the model should be broken into separate elements to account for the unstable growth.

**Multi-Stage Dividend Discount Model vs Gordon Growth**

Multi-stage dividend discount models tend to be a lot of sophisticated than the less complicated Gordon Growth Model, because, at the blank minimum, the model is broken into a pair of separate parts:

- Initial Growth Stage – Higher, Unsustainable Dividend Growth Rates
- Constant Growth Stage – Lower, property Dividend Growth Rates

In effect, the calculable share value accounts for the way corporations alter their dividend payout policy as they mature and reach the later stages of the forecast.

For instance, not like the Gordon Growth Model – which assumes a hard and fast perpetual rate of growth – the two-stage DDM variation assumes the company’s dividend rate of growth can stay constant for a few times.

To some purpose, the expansion rate is then attenuated because the growth assumption utilized in the primary stage is unsustainable in the long run.

**Dividend Discount Model (DDM) vs Discounted income Model (DCF)**

The dividend discount model (DDM) states that a corporation is definitely worth the total of this worth (PV) of all its future dividends, whereas the discounted income model (DCF) states that a corporation is definitely worth the total of its discounted future free money flows (FCFs). While the DDM methodology is relied upon less by equity and lots of these days read it as a superannuated approach, there square measure many similarities between the DDM and DCF valuation methodologies.

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)

- The DDM forecasts a company’s future dividend payments supported by specific dividend per share (DPS) and rate of growth assumptions, that square measure discounted exploitation of the value of equity.
- For conniving the terminal worth, an equity value-based multiple (e.g. P/E) should be used if the exit multiple approaches are employed.

Dividend Discount Model (DDM)

- The DCF, on the opposite hand, comes from a company’s future free money flows (FCFs) supported by discretionary operational assumptions like profitableness margins, revenue rate of growth, free income conversion magnitude relation, and more.
- And for the terminal worth calculation, the exit multiple users will be either an equity value-based multiple or enterprise value-based multiple – counting on whether or not the DCF is on a levered or unlevered basis.

Upon completion, the DDM directly calculates the equity value (and understood share price) just like levered DCFs, whereas unlevered DCFs calculate the enterprise worth directly – and would need more changes to induce equity value.

**Cost of Equity in Dividend Discount Model**

The projected money flows in an exceedingly DDM – the dividends anticipated to be issued – should be discounted back to the date of the valuation to account for the “time worth of money”. The discount rate used should represent the specified rate of a comeback (i.e. the minimum hurdle rate) for the cluster of capital provider(s) World Health Organization receives or have a claim to the money flows being discounted.

With that same, the acceptable discount rate to use within the DDM is the cost of equity because dividends are set out of a company’s retained earnings balance and solely profit the company’s equity holders. On the operating statement, if you imagine happening from “top-line” revenue to the “bottom-line” net financial gain, payments to lenders within the kind of interest expense affect the ending balance. Net income is therefore thought about as a post-debt, levered metric.