1. Summary
  2. Dividend Irrelevance Theory
  3. Dividends and a Company’s Financial Health
  4. Dividend Irrelevance Theory and Portfolio Strategies


There are 2 main alternatives for the company to form use of the earning profits. The one is to retain the earnings for the additional development of the firm. the opposite one is to distribute the profits to shareholders. in step with Keown and Martin (2007), paying dividends, together with a money payment and stock dividends, may be a manner for the company to distribute the profits to shareholders.

Dividend Irrelevance Theory

In the theory, it states that underneath good capital markets, the dividend policy is freelance to the worth of the firm and it doesn’t matter whether or not the corporate has high or low dividend payouts. in step with Modigliani and Miller (1961), there are 3 underlying assumptions for the theory:

  • Perfect capital market: No single actor within the market is giant enough to affect the market value of a security and everybody will access constant gratis data. additionally, no dealings prices or taxes, and so all actors will operate under constant conditions.
  • Rational behavior: All actors within the market like a lot of wealth than less, notwithstanding whether or not the rise in wealth is within the variety of capital gains from the worth of stocks or dividend payments.
  • Perfect certainty: All actors on the market have constant data and apprehend the come of each security within the future.

Dividends and a Company’s Financial Health

The dividend Irrelevance theory suggests that corporations will hurt their financial wellbeing by supplying dividends, which isn’t an unprecedented incidence.

Taking on Debt

Dividends might hurt a corporation if the corporate is seizing debt, within the variety of issuing bonds to investors or borrowing from a bank’s credit facility, to form their money dividend payments.

Let’s say that a corporation has created acquisitions within the past that has resulted in an exceedingly important quantity of debt on its balance sheet. The debt-servicing costs or interest payments are often prejudicing. Also, excessive debt will forestall corporations from accessing a lot of credit after they would like it most. If the corporate features a hard-line stance of perpetually paying dividends, proponents of the dividend Irrelevance theory would argue that the corporate is in pain itself. Over many years, all of these dividend payouts might have gone to paying down debt. Less debt may cause a lot of favorable credit terms on the remaining outstanding debt, permitting the corporate to cut back its debt sexual union prices.

Also, debt and dividend payments may forestall the corporate from creating a buying deal which may facilitate increased earnings in the future. Of course, it’s troublesome to pinpoint whether or not dividend payments are the perpetrator of a company’s underperformance. Mismanaging its debt, poor execution by management, and outdoors factors, like slow economic process, might all increase a company’s difficulties. However, corporations that do not pay dividends have extra cash to be had to form acquisitions, invest in assets, and pay down debt with the cash saved.

CAPEX Spending

If a corporation isn’t an investment in its business through capital expenditures (CAPEX), there may be a decline in the company’s valuation as earnings and aggressiveness erode over time. Capital expenditures are giant investments that corporations build in their long-money health and might embrace purchases of buildings, technology, equipment, and acquisitions. Investors that obtain dividend-paying stocks ought to value whether or not a management team is effectively reconciling the payout of dividends and investment in its future.

Dividend Irrelevance Theory and Portfolio Strategies

Despite the dividend Irrelevance theory, several investors specialize in dividends once managing their portfolios. for instance, a current financial gain strategy seeks to spot investments that pay above-average distributions (i.e., dividends and interest payments). whereas comparatively risk-averse overall, current financial gain ways are often enclosed in an exceeding variety of allocation choices across a gradient of risk.

Strategies centered on financial gain are sometimes acceptable for retirees or risk-averse investors. These income-seeking investors obtain stocks in established corporations that have the documentation of systematically paying dividends and have a coffee risk of missing a dividend payment.

Blue-chip corporations typically pay steady dividends. These are transnational companies that are operating for a variety of years, together with Coca-Cola, Disney, PepsiCo, Walmart, and McDonald’s. These corporations are dominant leaders in their industries and have designed extremely honorable brands, living multiple downturns within the economy.

Also, dividends will facilitate portfolio ways focused on the preservation of capital. If a portfolio suffers a loss from a decline within the stock exchange, the gains from dividends will facilitate offsetting those losses, protecting an investor’s hard-earned savings.