1. Summary
  2. Interest risk
  3. Credit risk
  4. Reinvestment risk
  5. Call risk
  6. Foreign currency risk
  7. Inflation risk


Superficially it looks like the debt instruments are innocuous, but this is often not the case and there are some risks involved in debt instruments conjointly. a number of the main risks in these instruments/funds are:

Interest risk

This is often conjointly called worth risk. Whenever there’s an amendment is that the interest rates the value of a document conjointly changes. Allow us to see, however. This market value of a document is discounted value of money flows that it’ll generate for the customer of the instrument. This discounting is completed at a rate of interest wherever we’ve enclosed acceptable unfold for varied risks. If the rate of interest will increase, the longer-term price of those money flows can decrease contrariwise. Therefore whenever there’s an amendment in the rate of interest, the worth/worth of a document changes. It’s benign for capitalists that the interest rates decrease because it can cause an increase in the price of their holdings. But there’s forever an opportunity for an increase in interest rates and thus corresponding decrease in investor’s debt portfolio. This risk is understood as the rate of interest risk. Currently, the interest rates are going southward, and also the price of debt instruments is increasing.

Credit risk

This risk arises from 2 factors-

a) Inability of the debt establishment to repay the debt, either partly or totally. This is often conjointly referred to as default risk. A business entity could become insolvent and should not be in a position to honor its commitments. For instance, in the case of IL&FS, the firm was unable to repay its obligations to its debt investors.

b) Decline in the trustworthiness of who instrument. Credit rating agencies like Crisil, Care, etc frequently rate the debt instruments of business entities. These ratings could move downwardly, from a stronger rating to a lesser one. This ends up in a decrease in the worth of the document of the entity. This is often conjointly a kind of credit risk. For instance, the debt instruments of DHFL are downgraded someday back.

Reinvestment risk

The principal and also the interest received by the customer of the debt has got to be reinvested by him. If the customer of the debt fails to reinvest these money flows at favourable interest rates, the ultimate come of the customer of the debt is going to be lesser. As a result the interest rates stick with it dynamically and should move southward, at the time of the reinvestment. The ultimate come of the capitalist is also but, what was anticipated. The moot purpose here is that increase in the rate of interest can increase the interest rate risk (as mentioned in purpose variety 1), whereas it’ll decrease the reinvestment risk and contrariwise.

Call risk

There’s an opportunity that the establishment of the debt instruments i.e. the business entity or the government, could repay the loan taken as debt (if there’s a decision possibility within the covenants), to the customer of the debt before its maturity. This typically happens at the time once the interest rates are down and also the business entity could get the debt refinanced at a lower rate. But for the capitalist, this may be the time once the worth of his portfolio would have enhanced. Therefore there’s a loss for the capitalist. What is more, the capitalist has got to reinvest the repaid loan, at lower interest rates currently? The act of repaying the loan before is decisional career up the loan and it ends up in call risk.

Foreign currency risk

Generally, the loan is taken in foreign currency. In such cases, the movement in currency costs will lend risk, to the investor’s portfolio. If the currency within which the loan is repaid, depreciates, the money flows from the loan can decrease in price (in native currency post-conversion). Therefore there’s a currency risk in cross-border loans.

Inflation risk

We tend to have already given glimmering, that the debt instruments are poor inflation hedges. This stems from the very fact that the money flows received by the investors from debt instruments are typically mounted in quantity. Just in case of accelerating inflation situation, the $64000 price of those money flows can decrease. Therefore there’s are inflation risk conjointly in debt instruments.