Contents

  1. Dark Pool
  2. Understanding the Dark Pool  
  3. Dark Pools and High-frequency Trading  
  4. Reviews of Dark Pools 

Dark Pool

A dark pool is an intimately organized fiscal forum or exchange for trading securities. Dark pools allow institutional investors to trade without exposure until after the trade has been executed and reported. Dark pools are a type of alternative trading system ( ATS) that gives certain investors the occasion to place large orders and make trades without intimately revealing their intentions during the hunt for a buyer or dealer.  

  • Dark pools are private asset exchanges designed to give fresh liquidity and obscurity for trading large blocks of securities down from the public eye.  
  • Dark pools give pricing and cost advantages to buy-side institutions similar to collective finances, and pension finances, which claim that these benefits eventually accrue to the retail investors who invest in these finances. 
  • Still, dark pools’ lack of translucency makes them susceptible to conflicts of interest by their possessors and raptorial trading practices by HFT enterprises.  

Understanding the Dark Pool  

Dark pools surfaced in the 1980s when the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) allowed brokers to distribute large blocks of shares. Electronic trading and an SEC ruling in 2005 that was designed to increase competition and cut sale costs have stimulated an increase in the number of dark pools.12 Dark pools can charge lower freights than exchanges because they’re frequently housed within a large establishment and not inescapably a bank. For illustration, Bloomberg LP owns the dark pool Bloomberg Trade book, which is registered with the SEC. Dark pools were originally substantially used by institutional investors for block trades involving a large number of securities. still, dark pools are no longer used only for large orders. A 2013 report by Celent set up that as a result of block orders moving to dark pools, the average order size dropped about 50, from 430 shares in 2009 to roughly 200 shares four times. The primary advantage of dark pool trading is that institutional investors making large trades can do so without exposure while chancing buyers and merchandisers. This prevents heavy price devaluation, which would else occur. However, for illustration, an investment bank was trying to vend 500, If it were public knowledge. Devaluation has come as a decreasingly likely threat, and electronic trading platforms are causing prices to respond much more snappily to request pressures. However, still, the news has a much lower impact on the request, If the new data is reported only after the trade has been executed.  

Dark Pools and High-frequency Trading  

With the arrival of supercomputers able of executing algorithmic-grounded programs throughout just milliseconds, high-frequency trading (HFT) has come to dominate diurnal trading volume. HFT technology allows institutional dealers to execute their orders of multimillion-share blocks ahead of other investors, staking on fractional supplements or downticks in share prices. When posterior orders are executed, gains are incontinently attained by HFT dealers who also close out their positions. This form of legal pirating can do dozens of times a day, reaping huge earnings for HFT dealers. 

Ultimately, HFT came so pervasive that it grew decreasingly delicate to execute large trades through a single exchange. Because large HFT orders had to be spread among multiple exchanges, it advised trading challengers who could also get in front of the order and catch up with the force, driving up share prices. All of this passed within milliseconds of the original order being placed. To avoid the translucency of public exchanges and insure liquidity for large block trades, several of the investment banks established private exchanges, which came to be known as dark pools. For dealers with large orders who are unfit to place them on the public exchanges, or want to avoid airmailing their intent, dark pools give a request of buyers and merchandisers with the liquidity to execute the trade. As of Feb. 28, 2022, 64 dark pools were operating in the United States, run substantially by investment banks. 

Reviews of Dark Pools  Although considered legal, dark pools are suitable to operate with little translucency. Those who have denounced HFT as an illegal advantage over other investors have also condemned the lack of translucency in dark pools, which can hide conflicts of interest. Due to complaints, the SEC conducted an exploration and presented their 2015 report, checking dark pools for illegal frontal- handling when institutional dealers place their order in front of a client’s order to subsidize the supplement in share prices. Lawyers of dark pools contend they give essential liquidity, allowing the requests to operate more efficiently.